Yuan blue and white porcelain, that is, blue and white porcelain produced in the Yuan Dynasty. Blue and white porcelain was produced in the Tang Dynasty and flourished in the Yuan Dynasty. Mature blue and white porcelain appeared in Jingdezhen in the Yuan Dynasty. Yuan blue-and-white porcelain greatly changed the implicit and reserved style of traditional porcelain. With its heroic spirit and artistic original spirit, it pushed the art of blue-and-white painting to the peak, and established the prosperity and longevity of blue-and-white porcelain for later generations. This article will introduce the differences between the blue-and-white porcelain of the folk kilns and the blue-and-white porcelain of the official kilns in the Yuan Dynasty. Since the Song Dynasty, porcelain has been divided into "official kiln" and "civilian kiln". "Official kiln" is produced in strict accordance with the requirements of the palace, and the location and production technology of the kiln site are strictly kept secret. "Folk kiln" is on the contrary. It can be made as you like. Most of the porcelain is the daily necessities of the people. Although folk kiln porcelain is rough, it has a natural taste and a special charm. As a dynasty under the rule of a minority in the Yuan Dynasty, the difference between the blue-and-white porcelain of the folk kiln and the blue-and-white porcelain of the official kiln has obvious characteristics of the times.
1. The difference between the firing of blue-and-white porcelain in folk kilns and blue-and-white porcelain in official kilns
The firing characteristics of folk kilns are significantly different from those of official kilns. Compared with the well-made official kilns, the blue and white porcelain of folk kilns still focuses on life and ordinary people. The blue-and-white porcelain of folk kilns in the Yuan Dynasty became the most common type of porcelain in Jingdezhen. The production is mainly simple, and the color is mainly soft. It is practical and beautiful at the same time. However, compared with the official kiln blue and white porcelain production cost regardless of cost, the production process is refined, and the production craftsmen are selected from the best, the folk kiln is obviously inferior to the official kiln in terms of material, craftsmanship, and artistic achievements, but its "nationalization" and "popularization" "There are advantages. Therefore, the disadvantages of folk kilns are mainly reflected in the following aspects: first, overall, the proficiency and craftsmanship of craftsmen and artists cannot be compared with those of official kilns; second, due to the large amount of high-quality clay resources that have been developed They are all occupied by official kilns, so it is difficult to find high-quality porcelain clay and glaze as materials. As Zhang Deren said, "most of the high-quality porcelain clays are classified as 'official soils' and are prohibited from being used in private kilns." Third, there are few sample preparation standards and a large selection scale. Compared with official kilns, blue and white porcelain for civilian use obviously cannot pursue the endless pursuit of exquisiteness, and it is necessary to comprehensively consider the cost of work and the taste of the masses.
With the support of private capital, the blue and white porcelain of folk kilns takes the production of daily-use porcelain as the main goal. Under the condition of limited manpower, material resources and financial resources, how to balance production and quality is the main goal of firing. As a result, the characteristics of blue and white firing in folk kilns show a form that takes less time, produces more finished products, and takes artistic quality into consideration. The market competition environment has created a bold and unrestrained folk blue and white porcelain painting, regardless of shape, simple and simple, unrestrained and unrestrained artistic style. At the same time, its expression technique not only absorbs the characteristics of Chinese national patterns, but also incorporates the techniques of Chinese painting. Decorate in the form of freehand brushwork, and use the changeable color tones of the cobalt material to obtain the same aesthetic feeling as ink painting.
2. The difference in shape and decoration between folk kiln blue and white porcelain and official kiln blue and white porcelain
The shape of Yuan Dynasty porcelain is characterized by thick, dignified and majestic, especially the high-grade fine porcelain, including the most positive blue and white, this feature is particularly obvious. This is related to the bold character of the Mongolians, but also related to it being an export product. The general feature of blue and white patterns is that it not only has some decorative forms of West Asian art, but also has a strong appearance of traditional Chinese folk patterns. Its layout is dense and its style is gorgeous and enthusiastic, which is very similar to the pattern and effect of weaving gold brocade at that time. The blue and white decorations of the Yuan Dynasty not only far exceed the black color patterns of the Cizhou kiln in the Song Dynasty in number, but also are very skilled in expressive techniques, and the pictures are exquisite and vivid.
Shape and Decoration Features of Blue and White Porcelain in Folk Kilns
In the Yuan Dynasty, the more representative shape of folk kilns was "Zhizheng". Although the "Zhizheng Type" is named after the Emperor Zhizheng of the Yuan Dynasty, it is not an official kiln device. Most of the blue-and-white porcelains of the right type are found overseas, and their decorations are quite Islamic. Scholars generally believe that the blue-and-white porcelain of the right type should be exported porcelain produced by folk kilns. The blue-and-white porcelain of folk kilns has the characteristics of heavy carcass, rough digging feet, thick soles, lack of enamel protection in the round feet, and uneven grinding of blue-and-white materials. In terms of painting style, the blue-and-white porcelain of folk kilns in the late Yuan Dynasty was characterized by dense and realistic painting decoration, and the painting methods of hooking, collapsing, painting and dyeing were the main ones. Compared with official kiln decorations, common folk kiln blue and white porcelain decorations are three-claw, four-claw dragon patterns and thicker utensils.
Blue-and-white cloud dragon twine branch peony pattern animal ear lid jar
Blue-and-white cloud-dragon-twisted peony-pattern animal-ear-covered jar with mouthwash, shoulders, belly, and shallow ring feet. The bottom of the vessel is unglazed, with several glaze spots. The shoulders are pasted with plastic animal head rings and ears. The cover has a slit and a lotus bud button. The body is painted with imported green materials from top to bottom with Hui pattern, tangled chrysanthemum pattern, modified lotus petal pattern, cloud dragon pattern, tangled branch Du Dan pattern, money pattern and modified lotus petal pattern. The cover surface is also decorated with variant lotus petal patterns and curly grass patterns, and spiral curves are drawn on the cover beads. The eyebrows, eyes and whiskers of the animal ears are all painted in blue and white, and the ring in the mouth is still intact. The shape of the vessel is thick, the tire quality is fine, the glaze color is smooth, and the blue and white are beautiful.