The main components of ceramic water cups are kaolin, clay, porcelain stone, porcelain clay, colorant, blue and white material, lime glaze, lime alkali glaze and so on. Jingdezhen ceramic cups are mainly made of kaolin ceramics, which is a kind of clay mainly composed of kaolinite. It is named after it was first discovered in Gaoling Village, northeast of Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Its chemical experimental formula is: Al203·2Si02·2H20, and the percentages by weight are: 39.50%, 46.54%, and 13.96%. Pure kaolin is dense or loose block, white or light gray in appearance. When polluted by other impurities, it can be dark brown, pink, beige, etc. It has a smooth feeling and is easy to knead into powder by hand. After calcination, the color is white and clean, and its refractoriness is high.
Ceramic Water Cup-Craftsmanship
1. Practicing mud: Take porcelain stones from the mining area, grind them finely with a water pestle, wash them, remove impurities, and make brick-like mud after precipitation. Then reconcile the mud with water, remove the slag, rub it with your hands, or crush it with your feet to squeeze out the air in the mud and make the water in the mud even.
2. Blank drawing: Throw the mud ball in the middle of the turntable of the potter's wheel, and draw it with the flexion and extension of the hand to get the general appearance of the blank.
3. Print blank: The form of the stamp is to cut according to the inner arc of the blank, put the semi-dry blank on the mold, press the outer wall of the blank evenly, and then demould.
4. Billet sharpening: Put the billet on the barrel of the potter's wheel, turn the wheel, and turn it with a knife to make the billet thickness appropriate and bright inside and outside. This is a process with high technical requirements.
5. Drying the billet: place the processed billet on a wooden frame to dry.
6. Engraving: Use bamboo, bone or iron knives to carve patterns on the dried or half-dried body.
7. Glazing: Generally, the round mouth adopts dipping glaze (immerse the billet in the glaze basin, and lift it out when the edge of the mouth is flush with the glaze surface) or swaying glaze (inject the glaze slurry into the billet and shake it to make the top and bottom evenly glazed, and then quickly Pour off the excess glaze slurry), cutting utensils (as opposed to "round utensils", "round utensils" refer to round utensils formed by casting methods, such as bowls, plates, plates, etc. Utensils with more complicated molding processes, Such as bottles, statues, pots, cans, etc., which are called "cutters") or large-scale round wares with blown glaze (the method is to cover the bamboo tube with spun yarn, dip it in the glaze and blow it with your mouth. Repeat this many times, and the surface of the blank can be uniform in thickness. glaze layer).
8. Kiln firing: The time course is about one day and night, and the temperature is about 1300°C. First build the kiln door, ignite the kiln, the fuel is pine wood, guide the pile technology, measure the fire, grasp the kiln temperature change, and decide the truce time.
9. Colored glaze: On-glaze color such as five-color, pastel, etc., is to draw patterns and fill colors on the glazed surface of the fired porcelain, and then bake it in a red furnace at a low temperature, the temperature is about 700°C-800°C. In addition, before firing the kiln, painting on the plain body of the body, such as blue and white, underglaze red, etc., is called underglaze red, which is characterized by the fact that the color will never fade under the high-temperature glaze.
The main raw material of ceramic water cups is mud, not rare metals, which will not waste our living resources, nor pollute the environment, nor destroy resources, but also non-toxic and harmless. The choice of ceramic cups shows the interpretation of environmental protection and the care of our ecological environment.