①Rust flower (white ground black flower porcelain): "Rust flower" is one of the traditional decoration methods of Cizhou kiln in Pengcheng porcelain production area, Ci County, Handan, Hebei. According to legend, it is a kind of black glaze made by Ding kiln in the north of Song Dynasty in my country. It uses iron oxide (Fe203) or a mineral with a high iron content - "speckled stone" as a coloring material, painted patterns under the glaze, and fired with a high-temperature oxidation flame, showing black patterns, and sometimes crystals appear, such as "Tao Ya" said: "Purple black glaze, full of star spots, shining brightly, its light is like iron", so it is also called "rust flower".
②Blue and white: "Blue and white porcelain" was developed on the basis of black flowers (rust flowers) in the Song Dynasty, that is, "white ground and black flowers". As early as the Yuan Dynasty in our country, it had been produced, and it was gradually refined in the Ming and Qing dynasties. It uses cobalt oxide as the coloring agent (also known as pearl material), paints patterns on the body, and then covers it with a layer of transparent bluish-white glaze. It is fired in a reducing flame at a temperature of about 1280°C in a human kiln. Cobalt oxide is fired in a high-temperature reducing flame, and the pattern is blue, so it is called "blue and white".
②-1 Hand-painted blue-and-white porcelain: "Blue-and-white porcelain" was painted in the Yuan Dynasty. It was only drawn and painted with a brush, with obvious traces of brush strokes. The image is bold and unconstrained, simple and generous. Some products are painted with soil materials (local impure green materials containing many impurities such as iron and cobalt), and the decorations are blue-gray. It is also painted with the so-called "Suniboqing" (an imported pigment), which has a bright blue-purple hue. It reached its peak in the Ming Dynasty. At that time, Xuande, Chenghua, and Wanli (three dynasties of the Ming Dynasty) were the representatives. The blue and white flowers of Xuande developed on the basis of the blue and white flowers of the Yuan Dynasty, with dark blue and green patterns, bright and vigorous. The patterns often have scattered halos and dark halos. Sometimes there are protrusions in the material (called "material thorns"), which are actually raised material accumulations, and there are crystallized "material spots" in the middle of the depression (that is, the material is thick and contains Iron), making the picture rich and varied, which experts consider to be a feature. Chenghua and Wanli painted blue and white, and changed the single brush to a thin brush to outline the lines. The large brush (water-dividing bucket pen) is divided into (mixed) water (that is, the color is divided into shades, light and shades), and the color is even, the decoration is delicate, beautiful, elegant, rich in layers, and the color of the material is relatively bright. The Qing Dynasty was represented by Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong (Three Dynasties of Qing Dynasty). Drawing blue and white, the decoration is more regular, the details are emphasized, the lines are tall and straight, and the levels are neat. Easy to imitate, but cumbersome. The "blue and white porcelain" produced today mostly uses cobalt oxide as the colorant. The color is pure green, delicate, but lacks a sense of thickness. The advantage is that the tone is consistent and the color is uniform, which is suitable for painting daily porcelain. Adjusting the formula can also imitate the materials and colors of Xuande, Chenghua and other dynasties, drawing display porcelain and antique porcelain decoration. Daily-use ceramics need to be matched. Due to the thickness of the color, the atmosphere in the kiln when the kiln is fired, and the location of the kiln, the hue and depth are slightly different. overall sense of unity.
②-2 Under glaze blue-and-white decals: In order to save manpower, increase productivity, and unify the picture and specifications, an improved decoration method uses decals instead of hand-painted blue-and-whites. Because of its uniform picture specifications, saving labor and time, and large production volume, it can be used as a general ordinary display porcelain picture decoration, and is more suitable for pasting and decorating a large number of complete sets of daily-use porcelain. Blue-and-white decal paper is generally made of copper plates, and then scraped to make decals. The blank is pasted with water, the backing paper is torn off, and the decoration is left. Then, transparent blue and white glaze is applied, and the human kiln is fired in a reduction flame. . The procedure is simple, the cost is low, and it is easy to master. At present, there are two kinds of blue and white decal paper: one is blue and white decal paper with water, which is decal paper with the effect of blue and white lines and water depth; the other is decal paper with only blue and white lines printed. After pasting the flower paper on the blank tire, tear off the backing paper, and still need to divide the water by hand. It should be noted that due to the different degrees of decal adhesion or due to carelessness in the process of printing decals and decals, defects such as broken lines and lack of decals are caused.
③Under glaze red: "Under glaze red" is caused by "Jun Kiln" and "Purple Red Spot Glaze" in the Song Dynasty, and firing began as early as the Song Dynasty. "Under glaze red" is an under glaze decorative product with "copper oxide" as the colorant. It is a fine powder color material mixed with a large amount of copper oxide and some limestone and rich in quartz and alkali metal (that is, mainly lime, with tin oxide, copper oxide, silicon and other elements), and draws patterns on the blank tire. , a layer of transparent bluish-white glaze is applied on the outside, and then fired in a human kiln with a reducing flame. The product forms an effect of red and white, strong contrast, dignified and elegant, thick and gorgeous, presented from under the transparent glaze, which is deeply loved by people. "In-glaze red material" is easy to precipitate and is highly sensitive to firing conditions, so it is often difficult to obtain the ideal red color. During roasting, if the heat is not enough, it turns purple, and sometimes apple green appears partially due to the oxidizing atmosphere in the kiln. It is also called "Yuanzi" in ancient records. Due to the unstable color of under glaze red, it is not suitable to draw supporting products. Therefore, if you can get an ideal red product, it is regarded as a treasure. After years of research and trial production, formula adjustment and kiln transformation, the effect has been greatly improved than before. "Under glaze red" was often decorated separately in the Yuan Dynasty and the early Ming Dynasty, but it was often decorated with blue and white, called "blue and white under glaze red". ", adding the "brilliant and lively" under glaze red, becoming a rare and precious art porcelain, which mainly decorates high-end display porcelain.
④Under glaze five-color: "Under-glaze five-color" decoration is a famous under glaze color decoration variety in Liling, Hunan. Because its colorful patterns are drawn under the glaze, it is called "under-glaze five-color", also known as "kiln color". It presents a variety of colorful patterns, colorful, smooth and moist, transparent and elegant in color, durable and never fades. Famous at home and abroad, cherished by people.
There are three methods of making "Five Colors Under Glaze" as follows:
④-1 Mud body painting: the mud body is decorated with a variety of under glaze color materials, which are fired at a low temperature of about 700 ℃, and then covered with a layer of transparent glaze and fired at a high temperature in a kiln. Because it is fired twice, it is called "two firing".
④-2 Biscuit painting: The mud is bisque-fired at low temperature, then decorated with under glaze pigments on the biscuit, fired again at low temperature, then covered with a layer of transparent glaze, and fired at high temperature in a human kiln. Because it has been fired three times, it is called "three firing".
④-3 Glaze blank painting: first apply white glaze to the finished blank, then draw decorations on the glaze with under glaze color materials, and then spray a layer of transparent thin glaze on the decorations, and then put it into the kiln for high temperature firing. Because the picture is in two layers of glaze, it is also called "in-glaze color". This kind of color decoration is simpler than the first two, so it is widely used. After liberation, due to the bold innovation of the vast number of porcelain workers and technicians, the method of under glaze decals was created to decorate "under glaze five-color" patterns, which improved work efficiency, reduced costs, and provided favorable conditions for mass production. The method is to glaze the blank, then brush a layer of 1% methyl cellulose on the glaze surface, and then paste a decal paper that has printed a layer of glaze on the paper in advance, and then printed colorful patterns on the glaze. The kiln is fired at high temperature. Works great and is very convenient.
⑤ Engraving and scratching: "Carving and scratching" is a kind of ceramic decoration that uses tools such as knives and needles to carve patterns on the blank, and then applies transparent glaze to the kiln for high-temperature firing to reveal patterns from the glaze. kind. "Carved flowers" are covered with a layer of high-temperature celadon glazes such as Yingqing, Yuqing, Douqing, and Longquan, so they are also called "celadon engraved flowers". Jingdezhen is also known as "half-knife mud". The appearance of "painted flowers" has a long history. According to legend, it has sprouted as far back as the Neolithic Age, and it has matured in the Tang and Song Dynasties. Especially in the Song Dynasty, it was widely used, so there is a "Song Dynasty carved flower" Known as scratching flower''. Historically, Ding Kiln (Quyang, Hebei), Yue Kiln (now Yuyao, Zhejiang), Yaozhou Kiln (now Tongchuan, Shaanxi), Cizhou Kiln (now Pengcheng, Hebei), Longquan Kiln (now Longquan, Zhejiang), Jingdezhen Kiln (Hutian Kiln, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi, Xianghu kiln) all have their own local style and have achieved outstanding achievements. "Kehuahua" is elegant, unique, non-toxic, and is the best decorative variety for making dinnerware, tea sets and eating utensils. "Described flower" pattern and shape are closely combined, and at the same time, it is connected with the glaze. It has a strong sense of integrity, concise image, low cost, and is easy to produce. Use engraved lines to form decorations. Decorate bowls, bottles, etc. Now Yixing (Dingshu Town) in Jiangsu and Rongchang in Sichuan and other porcelain-producing areas have developed engraved flowers and used them on purple sand and pottery, which has a unique style. "Picking flowers": Yes Use the carving method to carve the pattern on the blank tire, and then remove the base between the patterns with a carving knife to reveal the pattern, also known as "peeling flowers" and "picking flowers": it is to use a carving knife to cut the pattern on the blank tire. The part of the decoration is divided into negative patterns, which is the opposite of the processing method of picking flowers. The image is prominent, rough and simple, with a cut maple grid. In recent years, ceramic research and art personnel have used the depth of the scoring pattern, the deep glaze is thick and the color is deep, and the shallow part The optical principle of thin glaze and light color depicts figures, animals and plants, and is fired at high temperature after being coated with transparent glaze. Forming a work of art with a sketch effect, there is another new idea.